While many like to argue, you can’t teach an old dog new tricks, the truth is anyone can choose to start a positive and healthy habit today. While it may require self-discipline and drive, we can alter the course of our lives simply by making new choices leading to better outcomes.
In a recent Entrepreneur.com article, author and entrepreneur James Clear shares “5 Steps to Building a New Habit.” Here we share the first three of those steps:
- Start with an incredibly small habit. Willpower is not something that can be activated upon command. As Clear explains, “Research shows that willpower is like a muscle. It gets fatigued as you use it throughout the day. Another way to think of this is that your motivation ebbs and flows. It rises and falls.” This stands to reason that if you can exercise your willpower with a small habit, you can build to bigger habits as that willpower gains strength.
- Increase your habit in very small ways. Clear demonstrated this concept well in his article on the power of one percent. Small, incremental increases (and decreases, should we choose) can have a profound impact. The aggregation of marginal gains can be seen in both our personal and professional lives. Jim Rohn said, “Success is a few simple disciplines, practiced every day; while failure is simply a few errors in judgment, repeated every day.”
- As you build up, break habits into chunks. It can be difficult to tackle a bigger habit at one time. Clear suggests breaking a larger habit into smaller, more manageable habits. For example, if you want to exercise for 30 minutes a day, perhaps you can begin by excising 15 minutes, twice a day. Once your willpower and stamina improve, you can perform those two habits back to back, finally making that bigger habit a part of your daily routine.
It’s important that we continually seek to improve our lives, and that can be accomplished by replacing poor habits with good ones. Deciding that you will make the change is just the first step. Following that choice with these three steps can ensure that you’re on your way to an improved life based on positive and healthy habits.
Let Universal Inspire Your Entrepreneurial Spirit
If you need a little inspiration to help you change your habits, we suggest you consider working with UAC’s motivation speakers. Universal Accounting Center has some exceptional speakers on staff that can motivate you and your team to excel. With a number of individuals experienced in a variety of topics, they can help you better serve your clients, better market your practice, and better grow your wealth. Learn more about Universal Accounting Center’s speaker and book one for your next event!
Clear, James. “5 Steps to Building a New Habit.” 30 July 2014 Entrepreneur.com
Do you struggle to get your point across with colleagues, employees, clients or associates? Professionals must be able to communicate effectively in order to succeed—it’s a required soft skill. Before you can achieve effective communication, however, you must overcome some common barriers.
The following 5 obstacles may be holding up your ability to communicate effectively in your professional and personal life:
1. Varying perspectives. We all have different points of view and often that can become a significant barrier in effective communication. Depending on the conversation, understanding where those differences reside may be your first order of business in discussing key issues. Be open to what other parties have to say, because only in sharing ideas do you happen upon new and innovative concepts that may change the way you do business for the better.
2. Message delivered to the wrong audience. Sometimes we preach to the choir. Other times we’re selling meat to vegetarians. In order for communication to be effective, we must ensure that we’re delivering the right messages to the right audiences, using language and terminology that’s familiar to them.
3. Unclear, inarticulate messages. If the audience can’t understand what you’re saying, there’s no use saying it. Depending on how complicated your message is, you may want to share it with someone else to ensure it’s understandable. If that can’t be done, try approaching your message like a stranger. What exactly needs to be added, rearranged and revised in order for it to make more sense?
5. Apathy. Sometimes people just don’t care about your message. In that case, you have to not only communicate a message but also enthusiasm. Getting people excited about ideas can be a tough job, but if you understand what motivates them, you’re halfway there.
6. Forgetting that listening is part of communication. There are two key elements of effective communication: listening and speaking. It’s not surprising that most people don’t realize that listening is the more important of the two. If you’re not attending to the speaker and his/her message, it doesn’t matter what you say; your exchange will not be successful. Effective communication requires both parties to listen and speak when appropriate. That requires you to do your fair share of listening, and that doesn’t mean nodding your head absent-mindedly while replaying the last episode of Survivor in your head.
Whether you’re an accountant, a tax preparer, a motivational speaker or a celebrity chef, you must know how to communicate effectively in order to succeed. Eliminating these 5 barriers is a great first step to accomplishing clear and concise communication.
Register for Universal’s FREE Start Today Seminar
From DC to Texas and Canada to California—Universal travels the country providing free 3-hour seminars teaching the secrets to establishing a successful accounting and bookkeeping service. There you’ll learn how to enhance your service offerings while increasing your bottom lime! Look at our schedule and register for one of our seminars in a city near you. As attendee Dennis Shumway explained, “I have been involved in financial service for 20 years and have attended seminars all over the country. The quality of this class has been head and shoulders above any class that I have ever taken.”
Take advantage of this FREE opportunity now! Register today!
Remember the good ole days when you’d return to school from a long and lazy summer vacation only to be slapped with an essay assignment requiring you to detail how you spent your time? Thank heavens those days are over, right? Now that you’re all grown up, you’re free to spend your summer however you choose, and no one is going to ask you to be accountable—except, perhaps, your career.
While there’s only one month left of summer, a time typically considered a little slow for financial professionals, you can still do something that will advance your career and increase your income: learn how to better market your practice.
Become Your Own Marketing Guru
We get it. Marketing just isn’t your thing. You’re more comfortable running numbers than you are running ad campaigns. At least that’s how most financial professionals are. Unfortunately, in order for your business (and your bottom line) to grow you must promote it. And promote it effectively.
We understand that you can’t afford to waste countless hours a week marketing your business. If you did then when would you actually work for your clients? So each and every minute you spend marketing must be effective and practically guarantee a payoff in attracting and securing a better clientele.
You offer necessary and valuable services to a large market. Every individual and business is required to submit a tax return, and the ever-changing tax law requires many of them to seek professional help. But just because you offer stellar services doesn’t mean clients will be drawn to your practice like a magnet. They need to know about your services in order to retain them!
Marketing on Steroids
For over 30 years Universal Accounting Center has trained financial professionals like you how to market their financial services. In all our years working with accountants, bookkeepers and tax preparers we’ve come to understand that most don’t know how to promote their services to individuals and small businesses. We do! And not only do we know how to market those services, but we know which strategies and approaches will grow your business to the point where you will become so busy you may just have to start turning clients away – that or consider increasing your staff in order to increase your capacity (and your bottom line!).
To share this priceless information we developed the Universal Practice Builder Program, otherwise known as Marketing on Steroids.
Don’t waste the remainder of the summer on dollar-store sunscreen when you could be preparing yourself for a lifetime of summers filled with guilt-free 5-star R & R, paid for by your new and improved practice full of quality clients! Call Universal at 1-877-833-7908 to enroll in this stellar program now!
All businesses occasionally drop in profitability and require rebuilding. If you find yourself in this same position, realize that you’re not alone—countless entrepreneurs are continually looking for ways to restructure and rebuild their businesses back to thriving ventures.
The following three steps can help:
1. Focus on your strengths. Assess your practice and determine what, exactly, you do best. Are you good at saving failing businesses? Or perhaps you have a talent for making businesses more profitable? Or maybe you’re personable, friendly and trustworthy? The truth is, you could be a combination of these things, but only when you recognize your own strengths can you better promote them.
2. Diversify product offerings. If you intend to continue your business only offering tax preparation services, then you must draw more clients who need those services in order to grow your business. That’s doable, but there are other, more effective ways to build your business. Consider this; if you were to add complementary services, like small-business accounting, QuickBooks consulting, financial consulting, and business turnaround help, your current clients are likely to request some of those services as well. Without sending out fliers, postcards, or doing one radio commercial, you could increase your billable hours simply by informing current clients of your expanded offerings.
3. Reintroduce yourself. Once you’ve redefined and redirected your efforts, you can reintroduce your business to the area through marketing. With the attention on your strengths and new product offerings, you may be surprised how quickly your business grows.
Partner with Universal to Rebuild Your Practice
Universal Accounting Center may not be an official partner in your business, but we are in the business of helping build stronger, more profitable practices. Regardless of your current strengths, the Universal Practice Builder (UPB) program will enable you to attract and retain more clients, enabling you to rebuild a more stable practice. Here’s just a sampling of what you will gain from enrolling in this phenomenal program:
- A guarantee of $30,000 in new annualized billings in only 12 months
- The skills to become a Profit Expert for each of your clients
- 12 marketing strategies that you can implement immediately
- A process which can produce 15 to 25 qualified leads per month
- 3 months of coaching via telephone and Internet
- Training to use QuickBooks to attract more clients
- Access to a plan proven to help retain clients
- 5 business assessments
- A customized business website
- An iron-clad guarantee
Rebuild your practice—allow us to show you how. Call 1-877-833-7908 now to enroll in the Universal Practice Builder Program.
Every year the National Taxpayer Advocate submits a report to Congress identifying priority issues the TAS plans to focus on the upcoming fiscal year. On July 16th, Nina E. Olson (current National Taxpayer Advocate) released the mid-year report which notes four key issues: “taking concerted steps to give meaning to the recently adopted Taxpayer Bill of Rights, issuing refunds to victims of return preparer fraud, continuing to make improvements in the Exempt Organizations area and expanding recently announced voluntary return preparer certification program to include competency testing.”
Taxpayer Bill of Rights
On June 10th, the IRS announced the adoption of a Taxpayers Bill of Rights intended to provide US taxpayers with a better understanding of their taxpayer rights.
The Taxpayer Bill of Rights, as Olson explains, “has the potential to be an important milestone in tax administration.” And while some may questions their significance, Olson claims, “TAS will be very active in FY 2015 and years to come in advocating for and working with Congress and the IRS to fill those gaps, and educating taxpayers about those rights. This activity is central to our mission.”
IRS Treatment of Victims of Return Preparer Fraud
Because countless taxpayers have become victims of tax-related identity theft and/or unethical tax preparers, the IRS has been working to quickly issue these individuals their rightful tax refunds. Olson explains, “As I discuss in the Area of Focus, Return Preparer Fraud: A Sad Story, the IRS has consistently dragged its heels, making one excuse after another, because providing relief to those victims just is not a high enough priority, or more disturbingly, because the IRS simply does not want to provide relief.” Olson asks that this issue be remedied, and swiftly.
Exempt Organization Issues
The report states, “The National Taxpayer Advocate believes organizations requesting the right to receive contributions exempt from tax should be evaluated on how they expend those contributions. Under this analysis, as with the 501(h) election, volunteer time and activity, which do not generate taxable income for which tax exemption would be available in the first instance, are irrelevant to this determination.” The NTA wants to revise the proposal include a legislative recommendation in her year-end report to Congress. The report also expresses concern over the IRS’s plan to adopt a new EO application which does not include a place for organizations to describe their mission and activities or require them to submit documentation for review.
Minimum Standards for Tax-Return Preparers
Since 2002, the NTA has been recommending that Congress approve the instatement of standard requirements for tax preparers. When no action was taken, the IRS attempted to implement its own standardization for tax preparers in 2010. However, in 2011, after repeated attempts by the IRS to instate mandatory testing and CE for paid tax preparers, the Court of Appeals for the D.C. circuit found the mandates invalid.
The IRS has since announced its plan to release a voluntary training program for tax preparers in time for the 2015 filing season. The Annual Filing Season Program will offer basic tax training on filing issues, updates, ethics and other federal tax laws. Voluntary participants will receive a record of completion when they fulfill the required amount of continuing education (CE) credits; they will also be included in the IRS.gov database enabling taxpayers to select qualified tax preparers.
In this mid-year report, Olson again emphasizes the importance of protecting taxpayers from incompetent preparers with a standards program designed to regulate paid tax preparers which would include the following:
- Registration to promote accountability
- A one-time “entrance” examination to ensure basic competency in return preparation
- Continuing education courses to ensure preparers keep up to date with the many frequent tax-law changes; and
- A taxpayer education campaign to help guide taxpayers to credentialed practitioners
The National Taxpayer Advocate submits two annual reports to the House Committee on Ways and Means and the Senate Committee on Finance. The first report is due midyear and must detail the TAS’s objectives for the upcoming fiscal year. The second report is due on December 31st, and, in addition to other requirements, must identify 20 of the most serious problems encountered by taxpayers.
A detailed summary of this midyear report can be found on the official IRS website.
Universal Accounting Helps Tax Preparers Succeed
At Universal, we believe it’s important to prepare for the future, and we’re interested in seeing your future success as a tax preparer. Our Professional Tax Preparer Program is designed to help professionals like you master tax preparation, becoming efficient in the completion of individual and business returns. If you would like to learn more, visit Universal for a free video today!
–. “National Taxpayer Advocate Identifies Priority Issues and Challenges in Mid-Year Report to Congress.” 16 July 2014 IRS.gov
The old adage claims you’ll find strength in numbers. Regardless of your business’s standing, it helps to have solid business alliances with which you can grow your business and solidify its sucess. When you partner with other businesses, you have access to a professional support group that helps you garner more referrals, access experts in other fields, and take your business to the next level.
But before you align yourself with anyone, you should attend to the following three things:
1. Select organizations with compatible business objectives. Like any relationship, you should choose a business that is compatible with yours. If you were the CEO of a large firm then you would try to connect with leaders of organizations that complement your business’s size and prestige. If you are a contract worker with a handful of clients, then you would look to other small business owners or employees of like organizations.
It’s also important to ensure that your business objectives are similar. For example, when you partner with an organization that values customer service, chances are you’ll receive referrals from individuals who expect to be treated well.
2. Ensure the partnership is well balanced. Participating businesses should equally contribute to the alliance. All should be willing to commit to regular meetings and efforts that benefit all involved. Before agreeing to join an alliance, you must ensure that all parties are ready for the commitment and involvement required.
3. Determine your alliance goals. Once you’ve selected the participating businesses and verified the commitment of all parties, you can determine your alliance goals. What are you bringing to the table? Consider introductory services you could provide their clients at no cost. Consider those products and/or services that would benefit their clients while exposing them to your professional expertise.
You should also know, specifically, what you are looking for in return. Do you just want a list of referrals or would you prefer a glowing, personal endorsement from the potential partner? Unless you are specific in the terms of your alliance, one or more parties are likely to be disappointed with the relationship.
Universal’s Training Programs Have Something for Everyone
Additional training could be just what you need to acquire the skills and confidence necessary to expand your practice and make yourself a more appealing strategic partner. Visit Universal Accounting Center to sample our online training for FREE. Or see what our graduates have said about their experiences!
On June 26th the IRS announced plans to release a voluntary training program for tax preparers in time for the 2015 filing season. The Annual Filing Season Program will offer basic tax training on filing issues, updates, ethics and other federal tax laws. Voluntary participants will receive a record of completion when they fulfill the required amount of continuing education (CE) credits; they will also be included in the IRS.gov database enabling taxpayers to select qualified tax preparers.
IRS Commissioner John Koskinen explains, “This voluntary program will be a step to help protect taxpayers during the 2015 filing season. About 60 percent of tax return preparers operate without any type of oversight or education requirements. Our program will give unenrolled return preparers a way to stay to up-to-date on tax laws and changes, which we believe will improve service to taxpayers.” Koskinen goes on to say that tax preparers shouldn’t allow this program to replace any regular training or credential updates they currently participate in.
The press release also states, “Anyone who preparers all, or substantially all, of any federal tax return or refund claim for compensation is required to obtain a preparer tax identification number (PTIN). The pending guidance will also explain that tax return preparers with a valid PTIN who do not obtain a record of completion as part of the Annual Filing Season Program, or are not an attorney, CPA, enrolled agent, ERPA or enrolled actuary, may still prepare tax returns, but will not be included in the public directory.”
This comes following the IRS’s repeated attempts to instate mandatory testing and CE for paid tax preparers since 2011. However, earlier this year, the Court of Appeals for the D.C. circuit found the IRS mandates invalid. The IRS has not abandoned their efforts to regulate paid tax preparers, as they continue to believe doing so is in the best interests of taxpayers. This is why the Administration’s Fiscal Year 2015 Budget includes a proposal to authorize the regulation of all paid tax return preparers through the IRS.
To learn more about this program, or to read the press release in full, visit the official IRS website.
Ensure Your Creditability as a Tax Professional
Tax preparation is a viable and lucrative career path. Universal’s tax training will help you acquire the expertise you need. UA’s Professional Tax Preparer (PTP) program will not only help you earn a professional designation, but you could receive up to 60 CPE credits, depending on the number of modules you complete.
The four models include the following:
1. Establishing the Tax Foundation. Learn the entire process for determining income and adjustments to income, which will factor into the Adjusted Gross Income. In fact, you’ll cover all the information necessary to prepare Page One of Form 1040.
2. Becoming the 1040 Expert. This module deals with background information and forms that go into the 1040, Page 2. We also discuss all the adjustments that can be made to gross income, including credits that are allowed and different types of deductions and exemptions that can be taken against that adjust gross income number.
3. Profitable Business Returns. Here we introduce you to the world of business organizations and their tax concerns. This module is a practical companion to Module 2, as it give you experience in completing each of the schedules and forms common to business organizations.
4. Building Your Successful Tax Practice. Get a head start in creating and running your own tax preparation service. You will find yourself light years ahead of the competition as you put these strategies into play.
Hone your skills and earn a designation as a Professional Tax Preparer. Call Universal Accounting at 1-877-833-7908 to enroll today.
–. “New IRS Filing Season Program Unveiled for Tax Return Preparers.” 30 June 2014 IRS.gov
If you’re an accountant or want to become one, you’ve picked a stable occupation. Not too surprisingly, a large number of CFO’s were first accountants. And we’re finding that the number of CEO’s with an accounting background is increasing as well.
The workforce is kind to accountants. Largely due to the retirement of baby boomers, reputable accountants are in high demand. The US Department of Labor reports that accounting jobs will increase by 13% between 2012 and 2022. They explain, “In general, employment growth of accountants and auditors is expected to be closely tied to the health of the overall economy. As the economy grows, these workers will continue to be needed to prepare and examine financial records.”
According to data they’ve collected from the last 12 months, financial information company Sageworks ranks accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping and payroll services as the 20th fastest-growing US industry. Sagewords analyst Chuck Nwokocha explains, “The economy is just improving in general, and these industries are indicators that things are moving in the right direction.”
Last year Forbes ranked accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping and payroll services as the second most profitable industry in the United States, with a 21.2% net profit margin.
Roger Knecht, President of Universal Accounting, explains the demand for accounting services in the following video:
There’s no doubt accounting is a reputable service that will always be in demand, regardless of the economy. If you’ve considered taking the leap to launch a practice of your own, now’s the best time to get started!
Universal’s Professional Bookkeeper Program Can Provide the Training Your Need
Whether or not you have a degree, practical training in accounting could be just the thing you need to climb that professional ladder and reach the level to which you aspire. Whether that’s account manager, auditor, CFO or CEO, Universal Accounting Center’s Professional Bookkeeper Program can help you skip a rung or two. Here are the four modules you’ll enjoy:
- Module One: Accounting Made Easy
- Module Two: Practical Small Business Applications
- Module Three: Advancing Your ‘Account-Ability’
- Module Four: Building a Successful Accounting Service Contents
In less than 60 hours you could complete practical training in accounting that will give you the confidence and skills you need to move ahead in one of the brightest occupations around or start your own accounting practice. Not only that, but you’ll find the program inexpensive and convenient, allowing you to study at your own time and pace. Call 1-877-833-7908 and register now!
–. “Accountants and Auditors.” Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Accountants and Auditors
Berry, Mary Ellen. “The Fastest-Growing Industries over the Last Year.” 28 April 2014 Forbes.com
Berry, Mary Ellen. “The Most Profitable Businesses to Start.” 28 April 2013 Forbes.com
It can be difficult to manage a side business while working full time at a traditional job. But if you’re interested in building your practice before going out on your own, you’ll have to dedicate a significant amount of time to the endeavor to ensure its success.
In a recent Entrepreneur.com article, author and entrepreneur, Poornima Vijayashanker writes on “Hustling on a Side Business? How to Find the Time.” Here we share three of her four tips:
1. Figure out when you’ll ‘clock in.’ Establish a realistic number of hours you will dedicate to your new business every week. Whether it be 2, 3 or 4 hours a day, block the hours out on your calendar to ensure it gets done. And remember that you should use some of those hours to build a solid foundation for your business, composing business and marketing plans that will increase your chances for success.
2. Set a target. Consider how long it might take to grow your business to the point where you’d feel comfortable quitting your job. 3 months? 6 months? One year? And don’t work blindly towards that deadline. Determine “readiness indicators,” or symptoms, that your business is healthy enough to go full-time. Will you need at least 10 clients? 15? 20? Look at your current client base and calculate how much money each brings in. How many more would you need in order to compensate for your current full-time income? Don’t rush yourself. You’ll need time to prepare for this most important career shift.
3. Get strategic. While you definitely shouldn’t cut back on important things like sleep, exercise and family time, you should reprioritize your to-do list and work at streamlining as many tasks as possible. As Vijayashanker explains, “Be creative about the tasks you can delegate or automate to carve out the time you need. Some things you can likely skip entirely.”
Become a QuickBooks Consultant
One final tip we would suggest is to expand your service offerings. The more services you offer, the more valuable you become to current and prospective clients. Consider adding QuickBooks consulting services to your menu. As a QuickBooks Specialist, you can offer help, consulting and set-up services. It’s a great marketing tool that will bring your part-time business closer to being full-time ready.
To earn this QuickBooks designation you must complete the Professional Bookkeeper’s Guide to QuickBooks (PBG) and pass the final exam with a score of 90% or higher. And just like that you receive professional certification!
In addition to the skills you acquire in completing the PBG, you will also receive the following:
- Thorough and complete training on the latest and greatest version of QuickBooks Pro
- 6 months’ worth of access to our experienced, qualified QuickBooks professional accountants and CPAs to answer your questions
- Accounting 101 Review
- 30 hours of Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits in most states
- A 100% money-back guarantee
- A valuable addition to your reference library
The PBG offers the most competitive QuickBooks training on the market. Master QuickBooks and add QuickBooks consulting services to your menu. Call Universal at 1-877-833-7908 to enroll in this valuable training program now!
Vijayashanker, Poornima. “Hustling on a Side Business? How to Find the Time.” 11 June 2014 Entrepreneur.com
Following the release of the most recent TAS Annual Report to Congress, where National Taxpayer Advocate Nina E. Olson listed a Taxpayers Bill of Rights as top priority, the IRS conducted thorough discussions with the Taxpayer Advocate Service regarding the drafting of these rights.
Olsen explained the importance of this priority, “Congress has passed multiple pieces of legislation with the title of ‘Taxpayer Bill of Rights,’ however, taxpayer surveys conducted by my office have found that most taxpayers do not believe they have rights before the IRS and even fewer can name their rights. I believe a list of core taxpayer rights the IRS…will help taxpayers better understand their rights in dealing with the tax system.”
On June 10th, the IRS announced the adoption of a Taxpayers Bill of Rights intended to provide US taxpayers with a better understanding of their taxpayer rights. IRS Commissioner John A. Koskinen explains, “These are core concepts about which taxpayers should be aware. Respecting taxpayer rights continues to be a top priority for IRS employees, and the new Taxpayer Bill of Rights summarizes these important protections in a clearer, more understandable format than ever before.”
The general rights are listed as follows:
- The Right to Be Informed
- The Right to Quality Service
- The Right to Pay No More than the Correct Amount of Tax
- The Right to Challenge the IRS’s Position and Be Heard
- The Right to Appeal an IRS Decision in an Independent Forum
- The Right to Finality
- The Right to Privacy
- The Right to Confidentiality
- The Right to Retain Representation
- The Right to a Fair and Just Tax System
While the tax code does include many of these points, they were strewn throughout the code and difficult to find and, often, understand. Commissioner Koskinen explains, “I also want to emphasize that the concept of taxpayer rights is not a new one for IRS employees; they embrace it in their work every day. But our establishment of the Taxpayer Bill of Rights is also a clear reminder that all of the IRS takes seriously our responsibility to treat taxpayers fairly. [It] will serve as an important education tool, and we plan to highlight it in many different forms and venues.”
QuickBooks Made Profitable
Knowing how to make the most of your accounting software could save you hours of working on the computer. Consider purchasing Universal Accounting Center’s QuickBooks Made Profitable (QBMP). For next to nothing you can use your QuickBooks expertise to attract more clients and increase your bottom line!
80% of small businesses use Intuit’s QuickBooks software. Once you complete QuickBooks Made Profitable, you will be able to use our proven system to attract more clients with your QuickBooks expertise. Not only that, but when you add QuickBooks setup, help and consultation services to your menu, you enhance your financial service offerings and widen your customer appeal.
Take advantage of this marvelous opportunity to increase your bottom line. Call Universal at 1-877-833-7908 to order now!
–. “IRS Adopts ‘Taxpayer Bill of Rights;’ 10 Provisions to be Highlights on IRS.gov, in Publication1.” 10 June 2014